Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and The Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity at The Ohio State University. Proceedings of the Diversity and Inclusion Innovation Forum: Unconscious Bias in Academic Medicine, 2017.
- : Details the impact of unconscious bias in academic medicine and summarizes interventions that are being used to remediate these biases.
Hechtman et al. NIH funding longevity by gender. PNAS. 2018 July 31;115 (31) 7943-7948.
- : Explores whether women remain funded at the same rate as men after receiving their first major research grants.
Kuo M. Consciously Combating Unconscious Bias. Science Careers, 2017 January 30.
- : Offers strategies for reducing the impact of unconscious bias in hiring decisions and other professional responsibilities.
White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Reducing the Impact of Bias in the STEM Workforce: Strengthening Excellence and Innovation, November 30, 2016.
- : Identifies best, promising, and emerging practices to increase diversity in the STEM workforce by reducing the impact of bias.
Banaji M, Greenwald A. Blindspot: Hidden Biases of Good People, February, 2013.
- : Discusses the hidden biases in people and exploring how social groups shape our unconscious views.
National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering.
- : Provides statistical information about these three groups in science and engineering education and employment.
Association of American Medical Colleges. Altering the Course: Black Males in Medicine, 2015.
- : Explores the decline in black males applying and matriculating to medical school over the past three decades with a focus on factors that may contribute to low application rates, experiences along the career pathway, and the role of academic medicine in altering the course. The report identifies four major areas in which academic medicine may influence current trends for black males.
Filardo G, da Graca B, Sass DM, Pollock BD, Smith EB, Martinez MA-M. Trends and comparison of female first authorship in high impact medical journals: observational study (1994-2014). BMJ 2016;352:i847.
- : Discusses trends in female first authorship and suggests that underrepresentation of women is a continuing concern that needs to be addressed.
Pinholster G. Journals and funders confront implicit bias in peer review. Science 2016;352:1067-8.
- : Discusses strategies from a May 2016 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) forum on how to minimize implicit bias in the peer review process.
Johnson TJ, Hickey RW, Switzer GE, et al. The impact of cognitive stressors in the emergency department on physician implicit racial bias. Academic Emergency Medicine 2016;23:297-3058.
- : Explores how cognitive stressors may increase implicit racial bias. .
Valantine H, Collins FS. National Institutes of Health addresses the science of diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition. 2015 August.
- : Discusses the need for scientific approaches for four crosscutting diversity challenges impacting the biomedical research workforce.
Day T. Small bias, big difference. Research Policy. 2015 July;44(6):1266-1270.
- : Explores the role of bias in the grant peer review process using a computer simulated research model.
Austin J. Reviewing the reviewers. Science. 2014 Sept;345(6201):1206.
- : Discusses research showing that reviews of female scientists’ grant proposals contain nicer language.
Moss-Racusin C et al. Scientific diversity interventions. Science. 2014 Feb;343:615-616.
- : Discusses the approaches and outcomes of scientific diversity intervention programs and how to increase awareness while avoiding negative outcomes.
Waldrop MM. Pride in science. Nature. 2014 September 16.
- : Outlines concerns and challenges of the LGBT community within the scientific community, including the lack of data collection for this minority group.
Casadevall A, Handelsman J. The presence of female conveners correlates with a higher proportion of female speakers at scientific symposia. mBio. 2014 Jan;5(1):e00846-13.
- : Discusses the connection between female conveners and female invited speakers at microbiology scientific symposium.
Moss-Racusin C et al. Science faculty’s subtle gender biases favor male students. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 12 Aug;109(41):16474-16479.
- : Explores gender bias among science faculty hiring for a lab manager position.
Green AR et al. Implicit bias among physicians and its prediction of thrombolysis decisions for black and white patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2007 Sept;22(19):1231-1238.
- : Reports how the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was used to determine the unconscious biases of physicians and link these biases towards disparate treatment of black and white patients.
Carnes M et al. Promoting institutional change through bias literacy. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education. 2012 Jun;5(2);63-77.
- : Reviews the development and implementation of a workshop that promotes bias literacy as part of institution-wide efforts to reduce implicit bias, focusing particularly on gender equity.
Ginther D et al. Race, ethnicity, and NIH research awards. Science. 2011 Aug;333(6045):1015-1019.
- : Reports that minority groups are less likely to receive NIH funding after controlling for the applicant’s education, country of origin, training, previous grants, publication record, and employer characteristics.
Bertrand M, Mullainathan S. Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination. American Economic Review. 2004 94(4):991-1013.
- : Describes differences in callbacks for job candidates based solely on the associations of names with particular ethnic groups.
Trix F, Psenka C. Exploring the color of glass: letters of recommendation for female and male medical faculty. Discourse and Society. Sage Publications. 2003 14(2):191-220.
- : Reports gender differences in 300 letters of recommendation for hired medical faculty. Findings show that letters for females are shorter, less record raisers”.